Piping takeoff is the process of counting all the pipe runs and identifying their sizes, materials and any special parts needed. This can include things like valves, fittings, flanges and hangers.
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Pipe materials are chosen for specific purposes in the transportation of fluids. They must be able to perform the conveying function under a variety of conditions, including different temperatures and pressures. They must also meet various requirements, such as corrosive or non-corrosive.
A common pipe material is copper, which can be used in hot and cold water lines, as well as sewage drains. It can be purchased in a range of wall thicknesses, with type K having the thickest walls and type L having intermediate walls. Brass is another popular option. It is a durable material that does not contain lead, and it is ideal for sanitary and drainage systems. It can also be purchased in a range of wall thicknesses, and it is available in different alloys that affect its corrosion resistance.
Stainless steel pipes are designed for use in high-pressure applications, such as those found in oil and gas pipelines. They have good chemical and wear-resistant properties and are resistant to high temperatures. They are usually welded or welded and rolled. Welded pipes are stronger and more durable than rolled pipes, but they are less expensive than seamless ones. Seamless pipes are made from a solid bar of metal that is heated to a high temperature and probed through to create a hole in the middle. The resulting tube is then cut to size and inserted into a coupling or end fitting.
Pipe fittings are used to connect straight sections of pipe, adapt them to different sizes or shapes, and change the direction of the flow. They can be made from various materials, such as carbon steel, stainless steel, cast iron, copper, brass, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC), and aluminum. They can be welded, screwed, butt welded, soldered, brazed, pressed, or threaded.
The most common type of pipe fitting is the hex bushing. This type of fitting resembles a close nipple, but it has two threaded ends of different diameters. It can also have a hex head for installation with a pipe wrench. Another type of fitting is the reducer. This is a short stub of pipe with male-threaded ends that fits over a larger diameter pipe end. It has a constant radius throughout its length.
A nipple is a short stub of pipe, with male-threaded ends, that connects other pipe fittings. It can also have a smooth, continuous radius throughout its length. This type of fitting is usually used for plumbing and hoses.
Other types of pipe fittings include a double-tapped bushing, tee structures, and cross fittings. A tee structure joins three pipes at one point, and it can be used to change the elevation of the pipe or branch out into a new line. A wye structure is similar to a tee, but it has the shape of the letter “Y.” A cross fitting joins two pipes at one point, and it can be installed in a pipe’s header.
There are a variety of materials used to make pipe fittings. They must be compatible with the fluids or solids being transported, and they need to withstand different temperatures inside and outside the system. Other factors like fire hazards, earthquake resistance and mechanical ruggedness also influence the choice of fitting material.
A flange is a type of pipe fitting that seals the end of the pipeline. It can be threaded or welded to the pipe. Flanges are available in a handful of styles, rated by pressure and temperature. For example, lapped flanges are suitable for low-pressure applications, while weld neck and socket weld flanges can withstand higher pressure levels.
Another kind of pipe fitting is a bushing. These connect two pipes of the same size together by decreasing the larger pipe to the smaller one. They can be made from brass or steel, and they are often used in plumbing systems.
Pipe elbows are commonly used in piping systems to change the direction of the flow of liquid. They come in a wide range of angles and degrees, including 45-degree, 60-degree, 90-degree, and long radius (3D) or short radius (1D) bends.
When completing a pipe takeoff, contractors must also identify and quantify the labor required to complete the project. This can include things like sand or concrete for drainage purposes, equipment rental for a scissors lift to lay down a water line to a new building or even union personnel to set up the system in place. When estimating the cost of labor, it is important to consider all aspects of the job including prevailing wage rates, overhead, profit and equipment rentals.
Contractors can determine the labor needed for a project by performing a material takeoff or hiring a professional estimator to do so on their behalf. During the takeoff process, contractors will use colored pencils to measure blueprints and identify the lengths of each run of pipe needed for the job. Using takeoff software can make this process much faster and more accurate than manually calculating the information on a calculator.
For projects that require raw materials, contractors may obtain bids from a list of suppliers to get an idea of what prices to expect for each item needed. If the contractor works with similar materials on a regular basis, they can also draw from their own self-created database for their estimates. This method of pricing can make for more accurate construction costs that are tailored to real-world market conditions.