Imagine constructing a building without a blueprint or cooking a complex recipe without an ingredient list. This is what it would be like if your company went into production without an accurate bill of materials (BOM).
BOMs are critical to boosting supply chain resiliency. But, understanding the complexity of these documents requires a cross-section of departments such as engineering, design, purchasing and manufacturing.
What is a bill of materials?
A bill of materials is a comprehensive inventory outlining all the raw materials, components, and assemblies required to build or manufacture a product. The list also includes the quantities of each item needed to create a single unit of the finished product. BOMs are used as the primary source of data for product costing and material requirements planning. The structure of a BOM can be as simple or as complex as you need and is typically hierarchical.
There are 3 different types of BOMs: an engineering bill of materials (EBOM), a manufacturing bill of materials (MRP), and a sales bill of materials (SBOM). An EBOM defines the assembly structure from a functional perspective and is typically generated by an engineering department using CAD software. A manufacturing BOM is based on the MRP goals and takes into account wastage and other consumables.
A sales BOM is a list of all the assembled products and component parts that make up a finished product that will be sold to customers. A SBOM is usually generated by a sales department and may include items such as the product name, description, part number, revision number, units, dimensions, and weight.
What is a BOM?
A BOM is a document that lists all the components and materials needed to create a finished product. It is used in a variety of industries and business processes, including retail, manufacturing, and engineering. It is also an integral part of work orders, supply chain management, and inventory control.
A single-level BOM is a common type of BOM that is useful for simple products that require little assembly. A multi-level BOM is typically used for more complex products, with each level containing subassemblies and the parts that make up those subassemblies.
When creating a BOM, it is important to consider who will use the document and what information they need. The more details you include in a BOM, the easier it will be for your team to identify and order the correct parts.
Another benefit of using a BOM is that it helps reduce waste. By ensuring that you have the correct quantities of all materials, you can avoid overages and shortages. This also helps ensure that your production runs smoothly and that your deliveries to customers are made on time.
What is a BOM level?
A BOM level is a hierarchical structure that shows the relationship (also known as parent-child) between components, subassemblies, and assemblies. A multilevel BOM can show the parts that make up a finished product, for example, table legs and a tabletop, and the screws and varnish needed to assemble them together.
A configurable BOM, on the other hand, is used to configure a finished product to the specifications of an individual customer order. This could include color cases for smartphones, or labeling and packaging requirements for finished products.
A BOM is a key tool for managing the flow of production and minimizing waste. It ensures that all materials, parts, and components are in the right place at the right time to allow smooth supply chain operations and prevent manufacturing delays and inefficiencies. BOMs also contribute to higher quality control by clearly specifying parts and quantities. This can help reduce rework and reduce defects by providing an accurate reference point for workers who build the product. BOMs can be manually prepared or integrated into automated software systems that manage purchasing, inventory and labor planning.
What is a BOM note?
A BOM contains the individual components needed to assemble a product and their quantities. It also outlines the costs of these components, which helps businesses log and organize their production materials in an orderly manner and do cost estimation and budgeting. This facilitates accurate finished product pricing decisions and efficient manufacturing processes.
A single-level BOM shows each assembly, subassembly or component that goes into constructing a product once in a simple list, which is ideal for simpler assemblies. However, if a product fails during the manufacturing process, a single-level BOM doesn’t show the relationship between parent and child parts, so it can be difficult to find which specific part needs replacement.
A multi-level BOM, on the other hand, shows the assemblies, sub-assemblies and components in a parent-child, top-down structure. A multi-level BOM enables businesses to see the entire product’s construction and identify potential vulnerabilities in a product’s components. It can also help companies reduce waste, streamline production and stay ahead of material shortages and supply chain disruptions. A BOM may also include notes containing important information, such as the specifications an ingredient, material or component must meet and the procurement method.
What is a BOM unit of measure?
A BOM unit of measure is a way of identifying what kind of raw material or inventory item is needed to build a product. It can also be used to specify a particular method of procurement or a vendor to help ensure that the correct parts and materials are used in production. It may also include notes and descriptions to provide additional information about the assembly process.
There are several different kinds of BOMs, each with its own unique purposes and structures. For example, a planning BOM can help companies plan for future projects and production runs to avoid overstocking or running out of inventory. This type of BOM can also be helpful in predicting demand and making smarter purchasing and sales decisions.
A manufacturing BOM is a comprehensive list of all the items and subassemblies required to make a shippable finished product. It is usually used in combination with enterprise resource planning (ERP) and material requirements planning systems as well as a manufacturing execution system. It is also common to use an MBOM to communicate with third-party contract manufacturers in order to ensure that they are using efficient and accurate manufacturing methods.